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Welcome to the March 2004 edition of my web site! The roses I write about are the Old Garden Roses and select shrub and miniature roses of the 20th century. For tips on rose culture, pruning, propagation and history, see the "Site Resources Guide" box in the navigation panel at left. To return to this page, click on the "thorn icon" in the margin at left. Articles from the previous months are archived and can be viewed by clicking on the listings in the left margin. Oh, and please don't write to me for a catalog or pricelist.....this is an information site only, not a commercial nursery. If you wish to buy roses, see my sponsor, The Uncommon Rose.

The Damask Perpetuals of the 1840s
by Brent C. Dickerson

Copyright © Brent C. Dickerson, used by permission.

The 1840s comprise the decade of glory for the Damask Perpetual roses. They were released in numbers heretofore unknown to the group. Their color range was widened so that it encompassed white all the way to “ebony,” red all the way to “indigo,” pinks from the lightest blush to deep lilac-rose shades, spotted roses, and striped roses; we can even find an evanescent tint of yellow. While single blossoms are lacking—due, most certainly, to the taste of the times rather than any inability of the class to provide them—the blossoms reach from semi-double to fully double; we also see a full range in blossom size, from little pompons up to enormous globes of petals. While, by far, the greatest number of breeders producing 1840s Damask Perpetuals were located in the area of Angers, France, other areas’ breeders—some of them the most distinguished of the era—also made contributions to a class which was trying, ultimately unsuccessfully, to hold its own against the tidal wave of interest in their progeny, the Hybrid Perpetuals.

We continue, then, our series surveying to the extent possible every Damask Perpetual which has been introduced, still existing or long since extinct, well known or of the greatest obscurity. In this period, Jean-Pierre Vibert of Angers is prominent to the point that the others almost disappear in this class. He was responsible for nearly half of the Damask Perpetuals released in this rich decade, 48 out of 118. Aside from that prolific if mysterious figure in rose history, “Br. unk.” (“Breeder/Introducer unknown”), to whom 39 of the decade’s Damask Perpetuals are attributed, the third greatest number of releases came from the father of the rival Hybrid Perpetuals, Laffay, who released a mere 6.

Vibert’s efforts fell into two categories: traditional Damask Perpetuals and his own Trianon series, ultimately deriving from a rose which, as we have seen in an earlier article, he found in 1829 in the abandoned yard of another breeder. As his efforts with the Trianon series came to full fruition in the decade with which we are concerned, it is appropriate to review the story of their origin, and to scrutinize their differences from the common run of Damask Perpetuals: “I was at Rouen in September 1829,” Vibert tells us, “ at the home of an English plantsman whose garden had been left to itself for a while, and noticed there, among the seedlings, a semi-double rose blooming, which, aside from its remontant qualities, showed characteristics I hadn’t seen in other sorts. Some cuttings of this rose were given to me, and, as the place had the name ‘Trianon,’ that is what I named the rose. Having sown seed of this rose for 8 or 9 years without having gotten more than one good variety, I sowed instead the seed of some flesh-colored semi-doubles [presumably offspring of the original Trianon] with foliage that was different; after having repeated this for three or four years, I was able to raise a white; and the seeds of this were what I subsequently sowed, for the most part. The greater part of my seed-bearers are in their 5th or 6th generation; and it is really quite extraordinary to see such diversity among plants springing from the same Type . . . The number of roses descending from my Perpetual Trianon, doubles and semi-doubles, has surpassed 40, and I am sure to add many to the number of doubles before too many years have passed. Many of these roses bloom in clusters of 50 to 60 blossoms; their diameter varies from 3-8 cm [ca. 1-3 inches]; most waft an elegant perfume. From purest white to light purple, all shades are found; but, above all, it is in the details of their appearance that Nature has exercised freedom: wood, leaves, thorns, manner of growth—all vary . . . Such, then, are the reasons I have set up a new division of Perpetuals . . . Let me add an important observation: Within this set of roses are plants which bloom the first year from seeds, which does not ordinarily happen with Chinas, Noisettes, or Bourbons; last year, 10 or 12 young plants bloomed in July. All of these roses coming from this Trianon seem to me to be very receptive to pollination from other varieties—or perhaps it is because of their own inherent qualities that they show so much variation, which seems to me to be the more likely explanation [signed: Vibert, Angers, June 28, 1846].” [dH47/282] “All the roses of this division are quite various in habit and foliage, and quite different in these ways from others.” [M-L46/271] “Monsieur Vibert is the creator of this interesting division of perpetual roses, of which more than forty varieties are already grown by him. These varieties commend themselves by their distinct characteristics, unique to many of them, in form, color, and the disposition of the generally very fragrant flowers. These roses are not more delicate than those of the first division—many are more vigorous.” [M-L47/361] “This group of Roses is entirely new, and already contains some highly desirable varieties. It is another branch of the Damask, originated by M. Vibert of Angers. Let us hear what he says of them.—‘I have formed a new division for an interesting Group of Perpetual Roses, obtained from several varieties which acknowledge the Rose de Trianon as their type—a plant I first made known. There are now several white kinds. Certain peculiar characteristics, and the prospect of a great increase of varieties, have induced me to separate them from other Perpetuals. They are desirable, from their decided characters: they are unique in form, colour, and the disposition of the flowers, which are generally very sweet. They are not more delicate than the Damask Perpetual, and are far more vigorous in growth.’ The Group is as yet in its infancy; but, from the varieties we have already seen, we augur it will give birth to some large well-formed Roses. The flowers are mostly produced in small corymbs in the summer flowering, and the leaves gather in tufts near the ends of the shoots” [P].

We note the roses considered as among the Trianon series with the word “Trianon” at the end of the entry. It is particularly important to know and understand the Trianons and other Damask Perpetuals from Vibert in the 1840s. His reputation was widespread, his commercial relations extensive; varieties from his hand, from his nursery, would quickly show up far from Angers, France, to be cultivated, propagated, and sold to discerning gardeners perhaps on the very frontiers of civilization. Vibert’s tough Trianon Damask Perpetuals can thus be expected to have been appreciated and shared about in such lands; we can have high hopes that many of his roses will still remain as unknowns and foundlings in the four corners of the earth, waiting for discovery and identification.

Before we turn to look at each year’s successive releases of Damask Perpetuals, let us review the reference tags used here; with the journals and periodicals, year and page are indicated in the specific reference in the article text:

AnLy – Annales des Sciences Physiques . . . de Lyon
BJ – the Bon Jardinier
Bu – Robert Buist’s 1844 The Rose Manual
dH – the Journal d’Horticulture Pratique et de Jardinage
EL – The Rose, by Henry B. Ellwanger, 1882
FlCa – the Floricultural Cabinet
FP – The Book of Roses, by Francis Parkman, 1871
Gp&f – Guillot père et fils’ 1852 catalog
Hst – The Horticulturist
Jg – Rosenlexikon, by Auguste Jäger, published 1970, data
collected in the 1920s and 1930s
JR – Journal des Roses of Melun
LF – the 1841 catalog of Jean Laffay
LS – Léon Simon’s Nomenclature de Tous les Noms de Roses, 2nd
ed., 1906
M-L – Travaux du Comice Horticole de Maine-et-Loire
Mz – the 1853 catalog of Miellez of Esquermes
R&M62 – the 1862 catalog of Robert & Moreau
P – William Paul’s 1848 The Rose Garden
R47 – the 1847 edition of Thomas Rivers’ The Rose Amateur’s
R9 – the 1846 edition of Thomas Rivers’ The Rose Amateur’s Guide
R-H – Révue Horticole
S – Max Singer’s 1885 Dictionnaire des Roses
SRh – the journal of the Société d’Horticulture Pratique du Rhône
V47 – the 1847 catalog of Jean-Pierre Vibert
V8 – the 1844 catalog of Jean-Pierre Vibert
VPt – the Almanach Horticole
WRP – William R. Prince’s 1846 Prince’s Manual of Roses

Notes: The translations, such as they are, are mine. Should translations at times seem somewhat contorted or unidiomatic here or elsewhere, we call upon the reader to remember that at such points we are perhaps trying to put across the succession of concepts as they occurred to the original writer; as every language has its own peculiar “logic,” seeming grotesqueries may result from attention by the translator to representing a writer’s thought and thought processes in a language foreign to that writer’s thought; attention to cosmetic or other trivial demands of the language into which an original is being translated has thus not been made a priority. Our point with our research has been to clarify the actualities of the history of Damask Perpetuals by bringing out whatever facts we can about each and every one of them, while weeding out synonyms and other distracting phantoms; our point with this series of articles has been to breeze through a perhaps dry subject without numbing the reader with too much peripheral detail; full synonymy, thus, will be found in the book Old Roses: The Master List. Data in this article which differs from what is found in that book or my others should be considered as updated information. As always, such a notation as “-1840” indicates “first reference found in 1840”; such a variety could have been released in the indicated year, or could have been released much earlier.


•‘De Buret’ (Buret, -1840) We have a stumbling beginning, as the only description we have on our first variety of the 1840s is: “Semi-double” [AnLy40/506]. This is not to be confused with the -1835 red Noisette or Tea ‘Buret’. Monsieur Buret was also responsible for the –1828 Noisette ‘L’Angevine’, released through Vibert, a rose which attained some prominence in its day.

•‘De Trianon Double’ (Vibert, 1840) An early entry out of the Trianon gate, this is Vibert’s improvement upon the original. “Medium-sized, pink” [R&M62]. “[D]iffers from its parent only in having flowers larger and very double” [R47]. Rivers assumes, or knows, that ‘Rose de Trianon’ was the immediate parent of ‘De Trianon Double’; this may be the “one good variety” which Vibert mentions as coming from the original. Trianon.

•‘Korosine’ (Rousseau, 1840) As noted earlier, the Angers rosarians were very active in this classification, growing and exhibiting—often under intriguing names—new varieties, many of which appear to have been distributed no further than the city walls. Still, we learn from the description of such rarities what the Damask Perpetuals were (and are) capable of producing. “Rounded bush, with canes violet-hued when young. Prickles violet-hued. Five elliptical leaflets, of a dark green. Peduncle strong, upright, glandulose. Flower very full, but opening well, form of a Provins; a deep velvety violet red; fragrance that of the Provins. First bloomed in 1839. Very beautiful variety, perfectly remontant” [M-L40/128]. The significance of the name is elusive.

•‘La Financière’ (Moiré, 1840) “Bush small, rounded. Leaves elliptical. Blossom erect, 8 cm across [ca. 3 inches]. Very full, well formed, form that of a Centifolia, of which it has the scent and color. First bloomed in 1839. Superb rose somewhat like another beautiful Perpetual Rose known as ‘Joséphine-Antoinette’ [from Hardy, -1820]” [M-L40/127]. As to the name, perhaps Monsieur Moiré anticipated that the variety would prove to be a “moneymaker” for him.


•‘Desdémona’ (Vibert, 1841) “Medium-sized, double, carminy red” [V8]. “[F]lowers rosy purple, small and double; form, cupped. Distinct and very sweet” [P]. “[F]or its delicate colour, and exquisite fragrance, is worthy of culture, though its tendency to autumnal blooming merely, is discouraging” [Bu]. “[O]f a carmine red hue, delightfully fragrant, but sometimes fails to bloom well in autumn” [WRP]. Note the direct contradiction between Buist and Prince. Desdemona, the jealous Othello’s wife in Shakespeare’s play.

•‘Emilie Duval’ (Br. unk., -1841) “[D]elicate pale rose” [FlCa42/272]. “Flesh, full, cupped, large” [LF]. “[F]lowers pale rose, large and very double; form, cupped” [P]. Given the name, the suspicion of course is that this variety came from Duval of Montmorency, who was indeed dabbling in Damask Perpetuals in this era.

•‘Glabra’ (Br. unk., -1841) No description of this presumably glabrous variety has come down to us.

•‘La Magnanime’ (Br. unk., -1841) “Deep pink, full, flat, very large, superb” [LF] “Deep rose, very large and double” [P, assigning it to synonymy with Vibert’s 1839 ‘Monstrueuse’; we personally would prefer a rose that is magnanimous to one that is monstrous]. “Deep rose, beautifully veined” [FlCa42/236].

•‘Réquien’ (Br. unk., -1841) “Large, full, flesh” [V8]. “Large, full, in a close-set panicle, very fresh bright flesh” [LF]. “A very distinct rose, the flowers expanding large and flat, very double, of a pale flesh colour, with very strong foliage and habit” [Bu]. “[F]lowers delicate blush pink, very large and very double; form, cupped. Distinct, and fine late in the year” [P]. “[L]arge, full, in a close-set panicle, intense flesh, very fresh” [BJ53]. There is a tendency to think “requiem” when confronted with the name of this variety; Rivers, in his 1847 edition, reminds us that the name is “the name of a person . . . a very desirable rose of this class; flowers, very large, and of the palest rosy flesh.” The person in question is probably the French naturalist Esprit Réquien.

•‘Zelpha’ (Letemplier, 1841) “Bush small, with green canes. Prickles small. Five to seven elliptical medium-sized leaflets. Peduncle hispid. Ovary obconical. Flowers 2 inches 6 lignes in diameter, upright, very full, well-formed, of a lightly fleshed white, or more or less tinted with this color. Pretty variety, perfectly remontant, which bloomed for the first time in 1840” [M-L41/265-266]. “Zelpha” is the Douai Bible’s version of the King James Version’s “Zilpa” of Genesis.


•‘Amœna’ (Br. unk., -1842) No description has come down to us; this rose was exhibited in 1842 by Héry of Angers as ‘Amæna’. Amœna is the frequently-seen specific epithet indicating “pleasant” or the like.

•‘Angélina’ (Br. unk., -1842) “[F]lowers crimson purple, colour fine, of medium size, full; form, expanded. Habit, erect; growth, dwarf” [P]. This should not be confused with the fawn-tinged white ‘Mme. Angélina’, an 1844 Bourbon from Chanet.

•‘Calaïs’ (Goubault, 1842) “Leaflets narrow and very elongate, edged with brown when young; sepals elongate; flower well-formed, of medium size, of a beautiful red. Scent of the Provins. First bloomed in 1841. Pretty variety” [M-L42/356]. Calaïs, winged son of Boreus.

•‘Duc d’Enghien’ (Br. unk., -1842) “[F]lowers pale flesh, of medium size, very double; form, cupped” [P]. “[O]f the palest flesh-colour, nearly white, is a very distinct variety; like all of this family, it is very fragrant: habit, dwarf” [R47]. “Medium-sized, full, flesh” [V8]. “[A] fine, full double, incarnate variety, distinct in color, as well as in growth and frequency of flowering” [WRP]. “Very vigorous bush; flower medium-sized, very full, form of a cup; color, flesh pink” [S]. “Enghien” in the name perhaps suggests connection with breeder Parmentier of Enghien; but the name ‘Duc d’Enghien’ probably refers to Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, executed March 21, 1804, on the order of Napoléon.

•‘Fantase’ (Br. unk., -1842) Syn. ‘Fantasque’, ‘Fantasse’. Exhibited by Vibert in 1842, and described by him in 1844 as “medium-sized, double, flesh” [V8]. “[F]lowers blush, tinged with pink, large and full; form, expanded” [P].

•‘Flora’ (Br. unk., -1842) “[V]ery beautiful red” [FlCa42/236]. Flora, mythology’s goddess or nymph of flowers.

•‘Grand Papa’ (Br. unk., -1842) Listed without description as being exhibited in 1842 by Letemplier and Besnier, both of Angers. With such varieties, it is always possible that someone else purchased sole proprietary rights to the variety, then introducing it under another name.

•‘Marquise Boccella’ (Desprez/Cochet, 1842) We limit ourselves to one description of this much-discussed rose: “Light pink; a stout and short grower, the petals are singularly reflexed,” as Hovey’s The Magazine of Horticulture describes it in 1851, and quote our own remarks from The Old Rose Advisor: “There has been modern confusion between this variety and ‘Jacques Cartier’; the primary difference between the two appears to be height—‘Marquise Boccella’, as we have seen, is ‘stout and short,’ and ‘habit dwarf . . . and very compact’; contrariwise, the plant in modern commerce as ‘Jacques Cartier’ easily reaches to six feet (2 m) and more in a season, whether grafted or own-root.” More importantly, though I previously have accepted the statement of a Lyonnaise editor, who was present in the era, Martin-Victor Paquet, that the rose had been available “since 1840,” years of combing through the records and publications have failed to substantiate this date, and I now believe that Paquet was simply speaking loosely; I consequently urge acceptance of the traditional introduction date, 1842, for this variety. The Cochet family, which introduced Desprez’ rose, also collaborated in the publication of L. Simon’s Nomenclature de Tous les Noms…, in which the 1842 date is given; surely the Cochets scrutinized the information pertaining to their own roses in that publication. The Boccella family figures in the history of Tuscany, Italy, particularly in Lucca, where the Palazzo Boccella may be found. At the time of the release of this rose, the poetically-talented Cesare Boccella was the incumbent; this rose would honor his wife.

•‘Momus’ (Br. unk., -1842) Listed as being exhibited in 1842 by Boyau of Angers. “Bush not very vigorous; canes short; flowers small, full; color, red shaded with deep lilac” [S]. Momus, the carping and drowsy son of Night in mythology, the personification of Blame.

•‘Mr. Laffay’ (Br. unk., -1842) “[D]eep rose, large, double” [FlCa42/287]. Mr. Laffay, alias Jean Laffay, the master rosiériste.

•‘Pauline de Mondeville’ (Br. unk., -1842) Listed in 1842 as being exhibited by Boyau of Angers, without description. “Mondeville” in the name suggests connection with the Comte de Mondeville, who dabbled in rose breeding at Sainte-Radégonde in France in this era, and who is indeed credited with four Hybrid Perpetuals.

•‘Rénestine Audio’ (Audio, -1842) “[L]arge, full, deep pink” [V8]. Cf. the –1836 ‘Ernestine Audio’. The horticultural Monsieur Audio and his family were residents of Angers, France.

•‘Rugueuse’ (Br. unk., -1842) “[M]edium-sized, full, pink, variety from ‘Palmyre’” [V8]. “Roseate, full double variety of ‘Palmyre’ [WRP]. ‘Palmyre’ was Vibert’s 1817 Damask Perpetual which had a very long period of popularity. “Rugueuse” means channeled or rough, most likely referring to leaves.

•‘Van-Mons’ (Br. unk., -1842) Exhibited by Boyau in 1842. “Pink, veined with red, large” [FlCa45/261]. “Very vigorous bush; flower very large, full, well-formed; color, intense pink” [S]. “[A] new rose . . . a true perpetual damask, giving large and very fragrant flowers, deep pink, veined with red; its petals, I observe, are rather flaccid, so that in hot sunny weather they soon fade” [R47]. Introduction in 1842 rather than earlier is likely, as this was the year of the death of Jean-Baptiste Van Mons, the great Belgian chemist and pear hybridizer.


•‘Agerasie’ (Br. unk., -1843) Displayed by Letemplier of Angers in an exhibition of 1843, without description.

•‘Capitaine Rénard’ (Br. unk., -1843) Syn. ‘Rose du Roi Panachée’, “Striped Crimson Perpetual’. Exhibited under the name ‘Capitaine Rénard’ by Boyau of Angers in 1843, the name ‘Capitaine Rénard’ thus appears to pre-date its synonyms, though the earlier name seems to have been quickly disregarded in favor of said synonyms. In 1844, J.-B. Guillot has it as ‘Rose du Roi, panache, Capitaine Rénard’, described there as “striped, inconstant,” leaving it to the reader to determine whether the inconstancy is in its variegation or in the perpetuity of its bloom. The same year, Vibert has it as “du Roi, strié moyenne double pourpre clair” (du Roi, striped, medium-sized, double, light purple), in essence allowing its description to serve as its name. Prince, in 1846, offers it is his catalog as “Du Roi strié, or panachè [sic], Striped Crimson Perpetual. Captain Renard”, his description being “Flesh color striped with crimson, inconstant.” In 1848, W. Paul has it as ‘Striped Crimson’, giving ‘Captain Rénard’ as a synonym, and describes it, “flowers rosy pink, sometimes striped , but oftener merely mottled with white, large and very double; form, cupped. A sport from the Crimson Perpetual. A plant of this variety growing here bore white flowers last season.” Singer’s white Centifolia “Capitaine Raynard’ is most likely what W. Paul just noticed, a persistently white clone originating from a plant of ‘Captain Rénard’; under ‘du Roi strié’, Singer writes “Flower large, very full, wide-spreading; color, bright pink touched with white or pale rose.” As compared to that other striped sport from ‘Rose du Roi’, ‘Panachée de Lyon’ (Dubreuil, 1895), which we will look at in the last article in this series, ‘Capitaine Rénard’ is pink variegated lighter, while ‘Panachée de Lyon’ is pink variegated darker. The name ‘Capitaine Rénard’ perhaps refers to the character in La Fontaine’s poem “Le Renard et le Bouc”; should that be the case, the accent over the “e” should be dropped.

•‘Esmeralda’ (Letemplier, 1843) Our friend Monsieur Millet, observant président of the Comice Horticole de Maine-et-Loire, describes it in 1843 as “Rounded bush; 5 to 7 oval leaflets; peduncle hispid; ovary obconical, nearly smooth; 3 or 4 blossoms in a cluster, well formed, 2 inches in diameter, and of a beautiful flesh pink; scent of the Provins. Very pretty variety which bloomed in 1842 for the first time.” The Almanach Horticole agrees: “[F]lesh pink” [VPt45/160]. “4-5 flowers clustering together, well formed, 5-6 centimeters in diameter [ca. 2 inches], and of a beautiful flesh pink” [dH44/429]. The name probably refers to the heroine of Victor Hugo’s 1831 novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

•‘Lady Seymour’ (Vibert, 1843) A year after its introduction, Vibert describes it in his catalog as “medium-sized, full, deep pink, spotted.” In 1844, Buist finds it “quite a new variety, occasionally spotted with blush, on a bright rose ground; quite fragrant, and of perfect form.” William Paul, in 1848, records it as “flowers dark rose, spotted, of medium size, full.” Singer, erring by one year in its date of introduction, describes it as “Flowers medium-sized, full; color, bright pink, touched with pale pink.” Lady Seymour, most likely the beautiful Jane Georgiana Seymour, granddaughter of the playwright Richard Sheridan.

•‘Lepage’ (Br. unk., -1843) Exhibited in 1843 by Rousseau of Angers, without description.

•‘Louise Puget’ (Vibert, 1843) Syn. ‘Louis Puget’. Vibert’s characteristically terse description in 1844 is “Medium-sized, full, pink.” Prince catalogs it with an equally terse description: “Rose colour, very double.” W. Paul is much more helpful in 1848 with “flowers rosy blush, of medium size, full; form, cupped; five in bud. Very sweet.” Singer, in 1885, seems to have a personal acquaintance with it: “Bush very vigorous, flower medium-sized, full, wide-spreading, very fragrant; color, pink-white, much esteemed by bouquet-makers for its beautiful bud.” Louise Puget, French composer and singer.

•‘Minerve’ (Br. unk., -1843) Exhibited in Angers in 1843 by Boyau, Vibert offers it, as ‘Minerva’, in 1844, as “medium-sized, full, dark pink.” Prince describes it in 1846 as “a fine new variety, of medium size, full double, and deep rosy hue.” The next year, Rivers calls it “a new and very robust growing variety, and, like all of this class, it is worthy of notice for its fragrance only [meaning, presumably, that its fragrance alone would recommend it to our notice, rather than that everything’s unworthy except for its fragrance]; flowers, large; rose tinged with lilac; cupped and well-shaped.” W. Paul knows it as well: “flowers rosy pink, their margin of a lilac tint, large and full; form, compact. Fine foliage and habit, and very sweet.” It’s much lighter to the Floricultural Cabinet, “Beautiful blush” [FlCa45/66], as well as to the Bon Jardinier, “[M]edium-sized or large, full, pale pink” [BJ53]. Minerva, goddess of wisdom and war, daughter of Jupiter.

•‘Rouillard’ (Rouillard, 1843) Monsieur Rouillard’s tiny niche in the annals of rosedom is confined to this variety, named after himself, which he exhibited in Angers in 1843, undescribed aside from being a “new and beautiful variety” [M-L43/42].

•‘Yolande d’Aragon’ (Vibert, 1843) Vibert lists it in his 1844 catalog among the “reblooming uncertain hybrids,” the description being “medium-sized, full, pink.” Buist considers it (and 1841’s ‘Zelpha’), as being among the HPs. W. Paul assigns it to the Trianon subdivision, as indeed Vibert and his successors ultimately did, describing it as “flowers deep pink, their margin lilac blush, large and full; form, cupped. Habit, erect; growth, robust. The flowers of this variety are produced in immense clusters in summer.” In 1885, Singer’s entry on it is “Bright purple-pink, nearly scarlet, delicate lilac pink at the edge; flower large, full; of magnificent growth[,] in clusters.” Yolande d’Aragon, wife of Louis II of Anjou and the Two Sicilies, mother of René Duc d’Anjou. Trianon.


•‘Célestine’ (Br. unk., -1844) Syn. ‘Cœlestina’. We first find ‘Célestine’ in J.-B. Guillot’s catalog of 1844: “medium-sized, or large, full, well-formed, beautiful pink.” Prince has imported it to the U.S. by 1846, when his catalog lists it as “Brilliant rose color.” W. Paul’s opinion is that it is “rose, large and very double; form, compact. Fine.” In 1885, Singer, allotting it to the HPs, gives a thoroughgoing description: “Bush very vigorous; canes dark green, clothed with reddish spines which are much hooked and flattened at the base; leaves dark green, with very prominent veins, the underside grayish green; flower medium-sized, full, of very beautiful form; color, bright pink.” Robert & Moreau have it among their Hybrid Perpetuals in their 1862 catalog: “medium-sized or large, full, delicate pink, carminy, vigorous.”

•‘Deuil de l’Amiral Dumont d’Urville’ (Br. unk., -1844) Syn. ‘Deuil de Dumont-Durville’. Again, it is in the pages of J.-B. Guillot’s 1844 catalog that we first spot this rose: “small, lightly double, violet-hued, barely visible spotting.” W. Paul’s entry for it reads, “flowers dark purplish crimson, spotted with chocolate, of medium size, double; form, cupped.” Singer records it as an HP, with the description “Vigorous bush; foliage dark green; color, very dark violet, shaded with brown.” Jules Dumont d’Urville, 1790-1842, mariner and explorer.

•‘Du Roi à Long Pedoncule’ (Br. unk., -1844) Vibert’s 1844 catalog, where we find it, lets its description suffice for a name: to him, it’s a form of ‘Rose du Roi’ with long peduncles, doubtless “light purple” in flower color, as he describes ‘Rose du Roi’ itself.

•‘Duchesse de Montmorency’ (R. Lévêque, 1844) “Flower, double, large, globular, and of a fine bright satiny rose color” [MH45/28]. “Blossom large, very full, cupped; color, delicate pink, shaded lilac; much to be recommended for its late bloom” [S].

•‘Ebène’ (Boyau, 1844) “Medium-sized, full, changeable violet purple.” [BJ53]. “Medium-sized, double, violet-hued purple, the darkest of the sort” [V8] “Weak-growing plant; blossom medium-sized, full; color, violet purple” [S]. “Although not so black as ebony, yet very dark. I have seen it, in fine sunny dry weather, of that beautiful dark velvety colour peculiar to the Tuscany Rose; and this is its character in France. In moist weather, however, it becomes stained with a dingy brown, and it is then really any thing but pretty: it blooms freely in autumn, and gives very double and well-shaped flowers” [R9]. Ebène, which is to say ebony, the blackish wood.

•‘Ferret’ (Br. unk., -1844) Could this be the -1835 ‘Ferox’ with a garbled name? Vibert records it in 1844 as “medium-sized, full, pink”; similarly, in Prince’s 1846 catalog, it’s “Roseate, full double.” W. Paul, in 1848, sees it as “rose, of medium size, full”; and finally, in 1885, Singer gives a unique description: “Vigorous bush; flower medium-sized, full; coloration, blush orange [orange rosé].”

•‘Jacques Amyot’ (Varangot, 1844) “Canes reddish at first, later changing to dark green, with occasional small thorns; canes very noticeable due to the young buds, which are violet or reddish. Leaves composed of 5 leaflets, sometimes 7, oval-pointed, beautiful dark green, finely and regularly dentate; stem big and thick, long, reddish, covered with glandular bristles which are close-set; sepals elongate and foliaceous. Flower very full, from 7-9 cm across [to ca. 4 inches], beautiful purplish red, double; the central petals are for the most part split in bud. This flower resembles a beautiful purple Ranunculus” [dH45/279]. “Seed-bearing by this new variety is almost out of the question. The blossom looks ordinary enough; but all the stamens have become petaloid; the pistil, for its part, has developed a sort of pink crater at the tip, where may be found scaly petaloids as well as nectar from each of the young ovules” [R-H51]. Jacques Amyot, Bishop of Auxerre and translator, friend of Montaigne; lived 1513-1593.

•‘Jeanne Hachette’ (Vibert, -1844) “[I]f not the most constant, [this] is the largest rose of the group; I have measured it six inches in diameter, very double, fragrant, of a pale rose colour, and is a strong grower” [Bu]. “[F]lowers lilac rose, large and double; form, globular” [P] It is easy to confuse this elusive rose with its similarly-named predecessors; and that is exactly what I managed to do in the second edition of The Old Rose Advisor. The Damask ‘Jeanne Hachette’, of –1829, by Coquerel, was light pink, edged yet lighter. The Gallica ‘Jeanne Hachette’, of 1842, by Vibert, was carmine, spotted grenadine (and is listed in the Gallica chapter in The Old Rose Adventurer). It is indeed possible that it is only Coquerel’s Damask, which might have happened to rebloom now and then! Jeanne Hachette, heroic Beauvaisienne of the 15th Century.

•‘Laure’ (Duval, -1844) Syn. ‘Laure de Montmorency’, ‘Laurence de Montmorency’. The “de Montmorency” was probably added to distinguish this rose from the -1835 Centifolia ‘Laure’, which was hortensia in color—not so different, alas, from the color of this Damask Perpetual: “Large, full, lilac pink, very floriferous,” says J.-B. Guillot in 1844, while Prince has it “of expanded form, violet roseate hue and very superb.” The 1845 Floricultural Cabinet sees it as “shaded carmine.” Rivers, in 1847, finds it to be “a new and really superb variety; flowers, very large, cupped, finely shaped, and very double; colour, deep rosy pink, tinted with lilac. I observe that its foliage has lost the downy appearance of the Damask rose; thus showing its departure from the habits of the family; another remove, and it would have been placed with justice among the Hybrid Perpetuals.” W. Paul’s 1848 description is “flowers rich rosy lilac, glossy, large and full; form, cupped; fine. A superb Rose, and very sweet.” Robert & Moreau record it amon the HPs in 1862: “medium-sized or large, delicate pink.” For Singer, it is an HP: “Bush very vigorous; flower large, full, outspread, very fragrant; color, pinkish lilac.” Which particular Laure the introducer might be commemorating with this rose can be debated.

•‘Mauget’ (Br. unk., -1844) Vibert has first word on this in 1844: “medium-sized, full, flesh, flat.” Prince’s 1846 catalog sees it as “Incarnate, full double, expanded.” W. Paul, in 1848, enters it as “flowers flesh-colour, of medium size, full; form, compact.” The opinion of Robert & Moreau in 1862 is “medium-sized, full, flesh white.” “Very strong foliage, sepals of the calyx as developed as in the Centifolia; flower large, full, very fragrant, of a delicate pink. Raised in 1841” [dH44/204]. Mauget, the rosarian of Orléans.

•‘Mogador’ (Varangot, 1844) Syn. ‘Rose du Roi à Fleurs Pourpres’. Sport of ‘Rose du Roi’. “Brilliant crimson, often shaded with rich purple, large and full; form, cupped. Habit, branching; growth, moderate. A superb kind” [P]. “Branches with red bristles; thorns very small; foliage light green with a yellow tint; flower to 4 inches [ca. 1 dm], full; center petals recurved, dark red, often violet-purple” [R-H44]. “Thorns . . . thick, closely-set. Foliage . . . 5-7 leaflets of medium size, pointed, regularly dentate; flower stem strong, upright, reddish, also bristling with thick bristles, as is the ovary, which is long and covered with glandular hairs; calyx very long, slightly leaf-like [sepals]” [dH45/278]. Mogador, Morocco, today called Essaouira, site of a battle August 15, 1844, between the French and the Moroccans supporting Abd-el-Qadir.

•‘Perpétuelle Blanche’ (Mauget, 1844) “Foliage of a gay delicate green; stipules lightly colored; flowers very strong, of a beautiful white; petals numerous, symmetrically arranged along the edge, and presenting an elegant chaos in the middle, where one notices several stamens, which sometimes are lacking” [dH44/234]. A simple name for a simple coloration: “Perpetual White.”

•‘Perpétuelle Sanguin’ (Mauget, 1844) “[M]ore than 4 cm [ca. an inch and three-quarters], its color is a beautiful dark carmine, and its numerous and close-set petals have the arrangement and form of those of the Pompon Rose, from which it only differs in the abovementioned color and diameter. If this bush is generous, and if its habit and foliage are satisfactory, it’s a wonderful development” [dH44/205]. The name indicates that it’s a bloody perpetual, mate.

•‘Portland Moyenne Pleine Blanche’ (Vibert, -1844) Once again with Vibert, the description serves as the name; it’s “medium-sized, full, white,” to which he adds “not always opening well.”

•‘Pulchérie’ (Vibert, -1844) Vibert’s 1844 description of this is “medium-sized, full, violet-hued red.” J.-B. Guillot also offers it is 1844, perhaps suggesting that 1844 was not the year of its initial introduction; Guillot states, “large, very multiple [i.e., double], bright violet-hued red.” It has indeed made it to America by 1844—Buist records it that year as “one of the darkest varieties in the group, being a shade lighter than ‘Antinoüs’, and more perfect than that variety; the wood is very spiny, and when not in bloom would be taken for ‘Ferox’ . . . “ Two years later, Prince dismisses it as “a bright purple rose, that has been superseded.” In 1848, W. Paul is rather more appreciative: “flowers rich deep crimson, tinted with purple, large and double; form, cupped.” Singer records it in 1885 as “Vigorous bush; flower large, full, flat; color, bright crimson.” Pulquérie, a French prénom for a female; historically, a sister of the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II.

•‘St.-Fiacre’ (Mauget, 1844) Vibert had exhibited ‘St.-Fiacre’ in 1842, but Mauget did not introduce it commercially until 1844, when Vibert listed it in his catalog as “medium-sized, double, purple violet.” Prince lists it in his 1846 catalog as “Violet purple, beautiful.” W. Paul records it in 1848 as “flowers violet and crimson marbled, of medium size, double; form, cupped. A good seed-bearer.” In 1885, Singer reproduces the information given by Paul, adding “Vigorous bush.” “Very full rose, well-formed, of a purple washed with carmine, excellent seed-bearer, raised in 1841. This rose resembles, in form and color, the rose ‘Paul-Joseph’ [crimson-purple 1842 Bourbon by Lebougre]” [dH44/204]. St. Fiacre, patron saint of gardeners; lived in 7th Century France.


•‘Amanda Patenotte’ (Vibert, 1845) In 1846, Prince finds it “one of the very finest of this class; it is a most admirable flower, of a pale rose color, very double, protuberant, and of fine globular form”; he also notes that “some” rank it “as a Hybrid Perpetual, and perhaps justly so.” The next year, the Almanach Horticole describes it as “7 centimeters [in diameter; ca. 2 ¾ inches], full, deep pink, globular, very fragrant” [VPt47/127], while the Annales de Flore et de Pomone add “elegant foliage” to our knowledge about the variety [An46-47/209]. Not to be outdone, the Journald’Horticulture Pratique et de Jardinage offers a description only a little longer than the title of the publication it was in: “Canes hardly thorny at all; foliage medium, of a light green; flower nestling within the foliage (peduncle about a centimeter long [ca. 3/8 inch]), ovary smooth, glabrous; calycinate divisions medium-sized; corolla a very bright cerise red” [dH47/253]. Rivers steps in with his opinion: “Bright rose-coloured flowers, globular, and very double: this has the above mentioned fragrance [“briar or Dog Rose”] remarkably powerful” [R9]. W. Paul includes it, in 1848, among the Trianon Damask Perpetuals, as “flowers dark rose, large and full; form, globular. Habit, erect; growth, moderate.” Who was Amanda Patenotte? The family seems to have been of interest to Vibert in these years; as we shall see shortly, he also introduced a Damask Perpetual called ‘Clémence Patenotte’. Trianon.

•‘Arielle’ (Vibert, 1845) This was a modestly-sized one: “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, lilac pink” [VPt45/127]. Prince records ‘Arielle’ in his 1846 listing as “Rosy lilac, small, full double,” much like W. Paul’s “flowers lilac rose, of medium size, full” of two years later. This was one of Vibert’s more obscure releases in this series; and, curiously considering its small flowers, there appears to have been some confusion between it and Vibert’s –1839 ‘Monstrueuse’. Perhaps the two got mixed up in propagation at the nursery . . . Arielle, perhaps the sprite Ariel of Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Trianon.

•‘Carmin Royal’ (Br. unk., -1845) “[L]ight showy crimson” [FlCa45/66]. Not to be confused with the –1834 Gallica ‘Carmine Royale’.

•‘Gentilhomme’ (Br. unk., -1845) This obscurity is listed without description by both Armand of Lyon and William R. Prince of Flushing, New York, in 1846, and then slips into the mists without further ado.

•‘Indigo’ (Laffay, -1845) We have nothing to add to the description given in the second edition of The Old Rose Advisor: “Bluish violet, velvety, quite novel in tint” [MH45/Aug.Ad.3]. “Blossom large, full, flat; color, deep grenadine” [S] “Medium-sized, double, slaty deep violet, flat” [R&M62]. “Flowers medium size, very double, flat, and of a very dark purple. This is one of the Portland or old perpetuals [as opposed to the “new” Hybrid Perpetuals]” [MH45/28]. “’Indigo’, like [‘Ebène’], a new rose, is equally extravagantly named: this was raised from seed by Monsieur Laffay. I have been quite at a loss to conceive how he could by any fair means imagine the colour of this rose to be indigo; he might certainly, with equal justice, have named it ultramarine, for it is as much like one as the other: in colour it is of a deep slaty purple; flowers, rather flat and not fully double” [R9]. Indigo, the legume supplying blue dye to our bluejeans.

•‘Louise Aimé’ (Aimé, 1845) “Portland having flesh flowers with violet reflections” [VPt45/160]. “Big-wooded, thornless, the thorns being replaced by very small sharp points which are short and numerous; flowers crown the bush nicely, and have short peduncles which are very strong and erect; calyx glabrous, with reflexing sepals; flower of 8-9 centimeters (3 inches and more) in diameter, very full, slightly flat because of the multiplicity of petals, approaching in its form the ‘Rose du Roi’, but less regularly rounded and with outer petals clawed, reflexing, and heart-shaped, with those of the center more numerous, muddled into sections. The color of this Rose, which has the form and perfume of the Alba, is flesh with violet reflections, sometimes lilac-violet, depending upon the vigor of the plant, its situation, and the stage of opening. This rose, which bloomed for the first time in Spring 1842, rebloomed in Fall 1843, and this year [1845] in the Spring, the time at which we took our description. Its color and form are reminiscent of ‘Palmyre’ [Vibert’s 1817 DP], ‘Cynthie’ [probably Descemet’s pre-1820 Gallica], and ‘Comtesse de Murinais’ [Vibert’s 1843 Moss]” [dH45/169-170].

•‘Mme. Tellier’ (Roeser/Berger, 1845) Syn. ‘Mme. Thélier’. The Floricultural Cabinet, in 1845, records this as a “fine pale pink” [FlCa45/66]. Rivers, in 1847, found it to be “a delicate and pretty rose; colour, pink; flowers, middle-sized; habit, slender; this will, I have no doubt, succeed better on the Boursault stock.” W. Paul’s 1848 entry reads “flowers flesh-colour, of medium size, double” [P]. “Medium-sized, full, flesh” [BJ53]. In 1862, Robert & Moreau include it as “medium-sized, double, flesh” [R&M62]. “It’s a veritable ‘Rose du Roi’, but in flesh white!—with several petals further having several stripes of the original’s color. This nuance, heightened by beautiful foliage, is very pretty and has delicate shadings, qualities to which it is necessary to add its handsome habit and great floriferousness. This gracious Rose would seem to us to be progress towards the pure whites which are still lacking in this division” [dH45/169].

•‘Pierre Caillot’ (Roeser/Berger, 1845) The Almanach Horticole describes it as “like ‘Rose du Roi’, [except] delicate pink along the edge, carmine in the middle” [VPt45/160]. “Wood approaching that of ‘Bernard’ [pre-1836 Damask Perpetual]; foliage perfectly oval and toothed like a saw; flowers well held, with outer petals delicate pink, well rounded, imbricated, very full at the center, composed of numerous petals which are nearly carmine, elegantly swirled into several sections” [dH45/169]. Pierre Caillot, alias Brother Anselm, 1826-1845.

•‘Ponctuée’ (Br. unk., -1845) The Chez Armand catalog of 1846 describes ‘Ponctuée’ as “Bright pink, spotted white.” W. Paul writes, “flowers bright rose, spotted with white, of medium size, very double; form, expanded” [P], while Robert & Moreau quickly note it in 1862 as “medium-sized, double, deep pink, spotted” [R&M62]. Ponctuée, which is to say, “Spotted.”


•‘Amandine’ (Vibert, 1846) We reproduce the entry in the second edition of The Old Rose Advisor, with a small change or two: “Pale rose, large and full” [P]. “7-8 centimeters [to ca. 3 inches], full, delicate pink” [VPt47/126]. “Large, full, delicate pink” [Gp&f52]. “Rivers—Blush—with centre deep rose—large—fine. Paul—Delicate rose—large and full. Wood—Deep blush—globular and very double. Curtis—Outer petals light blush with deeper centre—beautiful. ‘Amandine’ was raised by Monsieur Vibert, the well known Nurseryman, and rose cultivator of Angers, in 1844, and is a very distinct and superb blush variety, of good habit and great fragrance; we figure it as the best of his Trianon group, or division of perpetuals, which we have long desired to notice. Mr. Rivers has favored us with his remarks on the subject, which so exactly coincide with our own opinion, that we cannot do better than transcribe his words. ‘Some four or five years since, Monsieur Vibert, of Angers, having raised seedlings from a very old autumnal blooming variety, called ‘Belle de Trianon’, founded a new group, which contained thirty or more varieties, some of these passably good, and which obtained favour with one or two rose growers; but with the exception of ‘Sidonie’ and the subject of our present notice, ‘Amandine’, nearly all have deservedly gone out of culture; but these, however, although placed amongst the ‘Belle de Trianon’ roses, belong more properly to our well known Hybrid perpetuals, having departed largely from their type. ‘Amandine’ is really a very fine and distinct rose, a free grower, and free autumnal bloomer…’” [C]. Trianon.

•‘Antigone’ (Vibert, 1846) “Size, 7-8 centimeters [to ca. 3 inches], deep pink; flowers in corymbs of 10 to 15 flowers. Bush very vigorous” [M-L46/270]. “[F]lowers dark mottled rose, produced in corymbs, large and very double; form, globular” [P]. “8-10 centimeters [approaching 4 inches], full, delicate pink, in corymbs” [R&M62]. “Plant extremely vigorous, leaves with seven leaflets of a gay green, flowers of a bright pink, borne in the axils of the upper leaves of the canes, to the number of five or six; they are borne on a peduncle six centimeters long [ca. 2¼ inches]; ovary small, lightly pubescent” [dH47/253]. Antigone, dutiful daughter of Œdipus and dutiful sister of Polynices. Trianon.

•‘Beck’ (Laffay, -1846) “[O]ne of Laffay’s recent acquisitions, is a large and most superb flower, of a roseate hue, and very double” [WRP]. This might be identifiable with the pre-1845 Damask proper ‘Bachelier-Beck’, which was salmon pink; until more data comes in, we keep the two entities separate.

•‘Crillon’ (Vibert, 1846) “5-6 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, incarnate, petals bunched” [V47]. “[F]lowers flesh-colour, of medium size, full” [P]. “Vigorous bush; flower medium-sized, full; color, flesh-pink” [S]. The honoree is perhaps not the Général Crillon of whom we read the following in the memoirs of Madame du Hausset of the court of Louis XV: “One evening, towards midnight, a bat flew into the suite where the Court was; the King immediately cried out, ‘Where is General Crillon?’ (He had just left the room.) ‘He is the General to command against the bats.’ This set everybody calling out, ‘Ou etais tu, Crillon?’ M. de Crillon soon after came in, and was told where the enemy was. He immediately threw off his coat, drew his sword, and commenced an attack upon the bat, which flew into the room where I was fast asleep. I started out of sleep at the noise, and saw the King and all the company around me. This furnished amusement for the rest of the evening. M. de Crillon was a very excellent and agreeable man, but he had the fault of indulging in buffooneries of this kind, which, however, were the result of his natural gaiety, and not of any subserviency of character.” More likely, Vibert is honoring his valorous ancestor Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon, alias “the Brave Crillon,” who lived 1541-1615. Trianon.

•‘Crispata’ (Br. unk., -1846) “[O]ne of those whimsies of nature, more curious than pretty. Each leaf is curled, and forms a ring, giving an odd appearance to the plant” [WRP]. The likelihood is that this is a survival of Descemet’s -1819 ‘Bifera Crispa’, also of flower color unknown to us.

•‘Olgérasie’ (Br. unk., -1846) “Incarnate, full double” [WRP] is all we know about this variety!—and we know less about its name.

•‘Pennsylvania Dwarf’ (Br. unk., -1846) “[A] small, very pretty blush rose, found full double in a wild state: the plant is very dwarf, attaining a height of only about eighteen inches [ca. 4.5 dm]” writes Prince in the main section of his book, adding “[s]mall pompone, delicate blush, dwf” in the catalog appended to his book.


•‘Adèle Mauzé’ (Vibert, 1847) “[F]lowers rose, large and full; curious foliage” [P]. “Flower 6-7 centimeters across [ca. 2½ inches], double, pink. Wood and foliage singular” [M-L46/271]. “Flower medium-sized, full; color, light pink; vigorous bush” [S]. There appears to have been some confusion between this variety and 1840’s ‘De Trianon Double’. Trianon.

•‘Armide’ (Vibert, 1847) “8-9 centimeters [to ca. 3½ inches], beautiful pink, flat, in a rosette,” quoth Vibert in his 1847 catalog. “[F]lowers rose-coloured, very large and full; form, compact” [P]. “Bush not very vigorous; canes thin, lacking prickles; flower large, very well formed, in the form of a cup; color, pink with salmon reflections. This variety reblooms very well” [S]. Armide, the enchantress in Tasso’s poem Gerusalemme liberata.

•‘Athos’ (Paris, 1847) “[F]lowers bright rose, large and full; form, compact. Raised in the vicinity of Paris” [P]. Athos, probably the musketeer rather than the mountain.

•‘Blanche-Vibert’ (Vibert, 1847) Syn. ‘Blanc de Vibert’. “One of the purest whites” [HstXXX:45]. “White, tinged with flesh, large, very full, flat form; often comes with a green center” [EL]. “[F]lowers yellowish when first opening, changing to white, of medium size, full” [P]. “[I]n a rosette” [R&M62]. “Flower 6-7 centimeters [ca. 3 inches], full, matte white, yellowish when opening, crested at the center. Flower very beautiful and quite unique in its genre” [M-L46/271]. “Blooms well in the autumn” [FP]. “Vigorous, branches upright and short” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Comte de Derby’ (Vibert, 1847) Syn. ‘Earl of Derby’. “[F]lower of 7-8 centimeters [ca. 3 inches], with a crown at the center, a beautiful pink. Wood and foliage remarkable. Very vigorous” [M-L46/271]. “[F]lowers rose, their margin almost white, large and full; form, cupped. Habit, erect; growth, very vigorous; foliage, fine, the young leaves edged with red. A fine Rose” [P]. “[V]ery beautiful flower” [M-L47/361]. “Wood very big, bearing very long yellowish thorns, foliage of an astonishing size, flowers of ‘Rose du Roi’ red but with flame reflections; they are large and borne in fives or sixes in the axils of the upper leaves on the canes” [dH47/254]. Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, Member of Parliament and naturalist; lived 1775-1851. Trianon.

•‘Delphine Gay’ (Vibert, 1847) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, flesh white, in a rosette; nearly thornless” [M-L47/361]. “[F]lowers white, tinted with flesh, of medium size, full; almost spineless” [P]. Not to be confused with Vibert’s 1823 Damask of the same name and color, but bristling with prickles. Delphine Gay de Girardin, lived 1804-1855, French authoress. Trianon.

•‘Duc de Devonshire’ (Vibert, 1847) “Flower of 6-7 centimeters [ca. 2½ inches], full, of a beautiful bright pink” [M-L46/271]. “8-9 centimeters [to ca. 3½ inches], full, bright pink” [R&M62]. “[Flowers bright rose, large and full, fine and distinct” [P]. “[S]uperb flower” [VPt/126]. “Foliage of a blond green; flower bright pink” [dH47/271]. Not to be confused with Laffay’s striped Hybrid China of the same name. William George Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, who spent much effort improving the gardens at his various estates; lived 1790-1858. Trianon.

•‘Duchesse de Rohan’ (R. Lévêque, 1847) “Lilac pink” [LS]. “Growth very vigorous; leaves dark green, often touched black; flower large, full, opening with difficulty; more to be recommended for its bunds than for its blossom; color, bright pink bordered very delicate pink” [S]. “Canes large and vigorous, with small, numerous, recurved, yellowish-brown thorns; leaves comprised of 5 medium-sized leaflets, fairly frequently bullate, regularly and finely dentate, fresh green, borne on an upright, strong stalk; blooms in a bouquet of 3 or 5, ovary medium-sized, nearly turbinate, without constriction [at the neck]; sepals longly foliaceous. Flowers 8-10 centimeters across [to ca. 4 inches], very full, plump, beautiful bright red nuanced dark violet. The first rows of petals are a paler pink, making it look like one of our beautiful Gallicas” [An47/19].

•‘Elisa Balcombe’ (Vibert, 1847) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, white, with some flesh at anthesis, in a corymb, very floriferous” [VPt47/127]. “[F]lowers white, their center inclining to flesh, small and very double; form, cupped. This variety appears to possess traces of the Noisette ‘Aimée Vibert’, which has likely been the parent on one side” [P]. “Vigorous bush; foliage somber green; flower small, full, in the form of a cup; color, pure white, light flesh pink at the center” [S]. “Here’s a perfectly white rose; its form is that of a filbert [the word is “noisette,” which literally means “filbert” or “hazelnut”; considering W. Paul’s comment above, it’s possible that the writer intends “its form is that of a Noisette rose”]; the flowers come in clusters of five to eighteen on each cane. These [canes] are upright, and bear medium-sized leaves which have much of the character of Perpetuals, but the wood is smoother and of a glaucous green which would allow one to mistake its classification; the peduncles are pubescent, the ovary short and glabrous; the bud is very elegant. A great future is expected for this rose” [dH47/271]. Trianon.

•‘Joasine Hanet’ (Vibert, 1847) While exhibited in 1846, it appears that ‘Joasine Hanet’ was not introduced commercially until 1847. “Flower 5-6 centimeters across [ca. 2¼ inches], full, purple-red” [M-L46/274]. “6 centimeters [2.3 inches], full, purple red, corymbiferous, in a rosette” [VPt47/126]. “Vigorous; flower medium-sized, full, growing in clusters, very floriferous; color, bright grenadine” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Julie de Krudner’ (Laffay, 1847) “[F]lowers pale flesh; form, compact” [P]. “[M]edium-sized, full, white, lightly salmoned” [R&M62]. “Bush very vigorous; flower medium-sized, full; color, flesh pink” [S]. “Remontant” [JR20/149].

•‘Julie Delaroche’ (Vibert, 1847) “5-6 centimeters [ca. 2¼ inches], full, deep pink, finely spotted” V47. “[F]lowers deep rose, finely spotted, of medium size, full” [P]. “Flower medium-sized, full; color, bright pink touched with pale pink” [S].

•‘La Favorite’ (Laffay, 1847) “Pale flesh” [Mz53]. “[F]lowers whitish flesh, sometimes striped with carmine” [P]. “Flower medium-sized, full; color, flesh white, striped with grenadine” [S].

•‘Leonide Leroy’ (Vibert, 1847) As with several of the Damask Perpetuals released by Vibert in 1847, this was exhibited in 1846. “Flower of 5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, of a very lightly fleshed white, with a rosette in the center” [M-L46/271]. “[F]lowers white, slightly tinted with flesh, produced in corymbs, of medium size, full; form, globular” [P]. “Vigorous bush; flower medium-sized, full, globular; color, white, nuanced salmon” [S]. The Leroy family was prominent in horticultural Angers. Trianon.

•‘Lesbie’ (Vibert, 1847) “Flower of 5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, delicate pink, in a corymb” [M-L46/271]. “[F]lowers pale rose, produced in corymbs, of medium size, full” [P]. Trianon.

•‘Louise Bordillon’ (Vibert, 1847) “Flower of 5-6 centimeters [to ca. 2¼ inches], full, pink. Beautiful form” [M-L46/271]. Vibert’s 1847 catalog increases its size to “6-7 centimeters [ca. 2½ inches]” [V47]. “[F]lowers rose, large and full; form, cupped, fine” [P]. “Flower large, full, outspread; color, bright pink” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Mathilde Jesse’ (Laffay, 1847) “[F]lowers bright rose, very large and full; form, compact; fine” [P]. “Fiery red” [Jg]. “Flame pink” [LS]. Mathilde Jesse, likely of the naturalist Jesse family of England, a family in which Laffay seems to have had an interest.

•‘Niobé’ (Vibert, 1847) “Flower 5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, pink; canes flattened, corymbiferous” [M-L46/271]. “[F]lowers pale rose, produced in corymbs, of medium size, full” [P]. Niobe, ever-weeping daughter of Tantalus. Trianon.

•‘Olivier de Serres’ (Vibert, 1847) “[F]lower 6-7 centimeters [to ca. 2.75 inches], deep pink; foliage singular” [M-L46/271]. “7 to 8 centimeters [to ca. 3 inches], full, deep pink” [R&M62]. “[F]lowers deep rose, large and full; foliage, singular. Habit, branching. Growth, vigorous” [P]. “This is a ‘Rose du Roi’ in form, and color; but the wood, clothed with brown thorns, is so short, and the inter-nodes so short (barely a centimeter [ca. a third of an inch]), that the flower itself, borne on a nearly non-existing peduncle, opens in the middle of a rosette of big leaves” [dH47/253-254]. “Vigorous bush; beautiful dark green foliage; flower large, full; color, deep pink” [S]. Olivier de Serres, early French agriculturist; lived 1539-1619. Trianon.

•‘Petite-Marie’ (Vibert, 1847) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, pink, globular: [M-L47/361]. “[F]lowers rose, of medium size, full; form, globular” [P]. Trianon.

•‘Petite Négresse’ (Vibert, 1847) Syn. ‘Négresse’. “Size, five centimeters [ca. 2 inches], very full, deep brown-purple; petals narrow” [M-L46/270]. “5-6 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], very full, purple brown or deep violet, petals narrow, bunched” [V47]. “Vigorous growth; flower small, very full; color, deep violet” [P].

•‘Polyclète’ (Laffay, 1847) “[F]lowers deep lilac, centre carmine” [P]. Polycletus, Greek sculptor, 5th century BC.

•‘Psyché’ (Vibert, 1847) “6 centimeters [ca. 2¼ inches], full, flesh; a character all its own” [M-L47/361]. “[F]lowers flesh colour, of medium size, full. A singular variety” [P]. Psyche, heroine of a classical “Beauty and the Beast” tale. Trianon.

•‘Rosalba’ (Robert/Vibert, 1847) “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], double, intense purple-red” [V47]. “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], double, bright red” [R&M62]. “[F]lowers bright purplish red, very large and double” [P]. Who would expect a rose named ‘Rosalba’ to be purplish red?

•‘Sapho’ (Vibert, 1847) “Flower of 5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], of a lightly fleshed white, full” [M-L46/271]. “[F]lowers white, tinted with flesh, of medium size, double” [P]. “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], double, white, corymbiferous” [R&M62]. Sappho, the 7th century BC poetess of Lesbos. Trianon.

•‘Sydonie’ (Vibert, 1847) Syn. ‘Sidonie’. Sdlg. ‘Belle de Trianon’. “Rosy blush, very delicate, and very sweet” [HstVIII:381]. “Large flowers of a rose or bright salmon . . . blooms profusely” [FP]. “Soft pink” [JR2/60]. “Flesh” [LS]. “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], full, pink, superb flower” [M-L47/361]. “Blooms four times a year” [JR6/43]. “Rose color, medium size, very full, quartered form, very free blooming, very hardy; five to seven leaflets, red thorns. Its poor shape destroys its usefulness” [EL]. “Habit, erect” [P]. “Blooms in a cluster having 4-10 blossoms, depending upon the plant’s vigor. One notes as well the delicious Damask fragrance. Its flowers, big to very big, a little flat when fully open, have a slightly muddled center. The color is a brilliant soft pink, well-held, remontant until heavy frost, vigorous bush, quite hardy, and very floriferous” [JR6/153-154]. “[S]uperb” [Gp&f52]. Trianon.


•‘À Fleurs Roses’ (Br. unk., -1848) A generically-named rose which was presumably pink, this is perhaps only an older rose—indeed, possibly the original ‘Monthly Rose’ itself—under a pedestrian name. The name must serve as its description: “with pink flowers.”

•‘Amiral Tourville’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers violet red, of medium size, full” [P]. This is possibly Guillot père’s ‘De Tourville, a dark grenadine Bourbon of 1846 (though W. Paul lists them both, and separately). Anne-Hilarion de Cotentin, Comte de Tourville; lived 1642-1701; admiral for Louis XIV.

•‘Anne de Bretagne’ (Vibert, 1848) “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], full, red-pink, flower divided at the center, in a rosette” [M-L48/426]. “Red pink” [Mz]. “Flower large, full; color, delicate pink” [S]. Anne of Brittany, lived 1477-1514; French queen.

•‘Casimir Delavigne’ (Vibert, 1848) “Crimson red” [Mz]. “8-9 centimeters [to ca. 3½ inches], full, crimson violet red, globular” [M-L48/427]. “Vigorous bush, short canes clothed with straight prickles; leaves very dark green, irregularly dentate, rough to the touch; flower large, full, globular; color, crimson violet” [S]. Jean François Casimir Delavigne, poet; lived 1793-1843.

•‘Couronne de Pourpre’ (Br. unk., -1848) It seems that only William Paul knew of this “Crown of Purple”: “[F]lowers purplish rose, large and double; form, cupped” [P].

•‘Dembrowski’ (Vibert, 1848) Confused maddeningly easily with the -1842 Hybrid Bourbon ‘Dombrowski’, which was scarlet sometimes shaded with purple, and was perhaps by Victor Verdier, the following descriptions certainly pertain to Vibert’s 1848 Damask Perpetual ‘Dembrowski’: “8-9 centimeters [to ca. 3½ inches], full, crimson violet purple; the only one of this color so far in this sort, it came from a sport of the Damask ‘Pope’ which I [Vibert] enfixed” [M-L48/427]. “Flowers full, 8 centimeters across [ca. 3¼ inches], deep violet crimson; sport, enfixed by graft” [M-V49/234]. It was still around in 1862, when Robert & Moreau were offering it with the same description; and Singer recorded it in 1885 as “Flower large, full, very floriferous; color, crimson shaded with dark violet” [S]. Edward Dembrowski, writer who led a revolt against the Austrians in Krakow in 1846.

•‘Joséphine Robert’ (Vibert, 1848) “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], full, beautiful pink, in a rosette, very beautiful form” [M-L48/426]. “Very floriferous” [R&M62]. “Bush vigorous; flower large, full, very well-formed; color, crimson, edged pink” [S]. Joséphine Robert, perhaps the wife or daughter or mother of Vibert’s foreman and successor Robert. Trianon.

•‘La Candeur’ (Vibert, 1848) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], double, white with a light touch of flesh when opening” [M-L48]427]. “Vigorous bush…” [S]. Candor, always refreshing, sometimes alarming. Trianon.

•‘La Capricieuse’ (Duval, -1848) “[F]lowers crimson, of medium size, double. Very sweet” [P]. ‘La Capricieuse’, the Capricious One—so capricious that she is no longer with us.

•‘La Miniature’ (Vibert, -1848) Not to be confused with the earlier Moss from Robert. “4-5 centimeters [to ca. 2 inches], full, pink, often brushed with black [sablée], with very small and very close-set leaves” [M-L48/427]. “[F]lowers pale rose. An abundant bloomer and very hardy, but small” [P].

•‘Marjolin’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers blush, with rosy centre, large and full; corm, cupped. A good Rose” [P]. The description in Singer, though stated as referring to a Hybrid China, seems to refer to this rose: “Flower large, full, outspread; color, pale pink, with a darker center” [S]. Dr. Marjolin, of the Luxembourg Palace gardens.

•‘Odeïska’ (Vibert, -1848) “[F]lowers lilac rose, of medium size, full” [P]. “6 centimeters [ca. 4.3 inches], full, lilac-hued pink” [R&M62]. “Vigorous bush, flower medium-sized, full, very well-formed; color, lilac pink” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Petite Louise’ (Vibert, 1848) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, pink, in a rosette, very pretty” [M-L48/427]. Trianon.

•‘Philodamie’ (Vibert, -1848) “Flowers full, 5-6 centimeters in diameter [ca. 2-2¼ inches], very delicate pink; form flat, in a rosette” [M-V49/235]. “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, delicate pink, in a rosette, flat” [R&M62]. “Flower large, full, flat; color, delicate pink” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Portlandica Pomponiana’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers deep crimson purple” [P].

•‘Princesse Royale’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers bright crimson, small and full; form, cupped. A delicate plant” [P]. Not to be confused with Portemer’s Moss of a few years previous.

•‘Surpasse Antinoüs’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers deep crimson, of medium size, full” [P]. ‘Antinoüs’, well-known pre-1836 Damask Perpetual from Flon which this rose’s unknown breeder considered surpassed by this now-unknown rose.

•‘Thiers’ (Br. unk., -1848) “[F]lowers deep rose, of medium size, full” [P]. “Medium-sized, full, lilac pink” [R&M62]. “Flower large, full, well-formed; color, bright pink” [S]. Louis Adolphe Thiers; lived 1797-1877; primarily an historian up to the time of this rose; subsequently a statesman as well.


•‘Anne de Melun’ (Vibert, 1849) “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, deep pink, in corymbs, long peduncles; very vigorous” [M-L49/76]. Anne de Melun, Princesse d’Espinoy; lived her humble and religious life 1618-1679.

•‘Aurélie’ (Vibert, 1849) “8 centimeters [ca. 3¼ inches], full, pink, flat” [R&M62].

•‘Blanche Perpétuelle’ (Moulins, 1849) Syn. ‘Alba Perpetua’. “Flower medium-sized, full; color, pure white” [S]. Not to be confused with Mauget’s ‘Perpétuelle Blanche’ of 1844!

•‘Celina Dubos’ (Dubos, 1849) Sport of ‘Rose du Roi’. “We are unable to resist the pleasure of noting . . . a new variety which is both perpetual and very remontant, called ‘Célina Dubos’” [R-H49]. “White or nearly white…worthy of attention both from its origin and quality . . . its flowers are well shaped, very durable, and highly fragrant” [R8]. “Medium-sized, full, lightly blushed white” [BJ53]. “Grayish white” [S]. The new white Damask Perpetual ‘Célina Dubos’, with very pale blush center, though believed to be a sport from ‘Rose du Roi’, is very constant, and is the nearest approach to white amongst the Perpetuals” [HstX:398]. “The canes, thorns, and form of the buds and flower resemble those of ‘Rose du Roi’. But, at the moment of anthesis, the petals are flesh white and often then become pure white, then blushing in the sun’s rays” [SRh50/56].

•‘Clémence Patenotte’ (Vibert, 1849) “Flowers full, 5-6 centimeters in diameter [ca. 2-2¼ inches], delicate pink; form, flat” [M-V49/234]. “Vigorous bush; canes long, clothed with short spines of a grayish-green; flower large, full, flat; color, delicate pink” [S].

•‘Georgette’ (Vibert, 1849) “6 centimeters [ca. 2½ inches], full, delicate pink, in a rosette, long peduncles” [M-L49/75]. “5 centimeters [ca. 2 inches], full, flesh, in a rosette” [R&M62]. “Vigorous bush; flower full, flat; color, flesh pink” [S]. Trianon.

•‘Juterne’ (Vibert, 1849) “[F]lowers full, 8 centimeters in diameter [ca. 3 inches], deep pink, form globular” [M-V49/235]. “7 centimeters [ca. 2.75 inches], full, deep pink, globular” [R&M62].

•‘Philodamie’ (Vibert, 1849) “5-6 centimeters [to ca. 2½ inches], full, delicate pink, flat, in a rosette” [M-L49/75]. Trianon.

•‘Rachel’ (Vibert, 1849) “8 centimeters [ca. 3 inches], pink; this color is darker at the center” [M-L49/75]. Rachel, Jacob’s favorite wife, mother of Joseph and Benjamin.

The great impetus which Vibert gave Damask Perpetuals all during his great career, and now at that career’s end, allowed the group to remain in the public eye as a viable, garden-worthy class for a few more years; yet, their time was quickly passing, their children, the Hybrid Perpetuals, were quickly gaining the public’s attention to their exclusion. In our next article, we shall see the beginning of their decline.


•Color Distribution in the 1840s Damask Perpetuals.

Color Unknown: 10
White or Near-White: 10
Light Pink: 23
Medium Pink: 31
Deep Pink: 14
Medium Red: 6
Dark Red, Purple, etc.: 18
Striped: 1
Spotted: 2
Bicolor: 3
TOTAL: 118

•Breeder/Introducer Count (unknowns, and those with only 1 introduction, not listed).

Vibert, 48
Laffay, 6
Mauget, 3
Duval, 2
Letemplier, 2
R. Lévêque, 2
Roeser, 2
Varangot, 2

•Excluded Roses.

Several roses which might have been sought in the above listing have been excluded: ‘Mme. Boulogne’, recorded in 1843, is doubtless ‘Henriette Boulogne’ of -1835, which itself is most likely the -1811 ‘Henriette’ from Italy. ‘Du Roi Pourpre’, recorded in 1846, is obviously ‘Mogador’ of 1844. ‘Cœlestina’, recorded in 1848, is the -1844 ‘Célestine’. Finally, there seems no reason to contest W. Paul’s assertion that ‘Mme. Ferray’ is a synonym of the -1836 ‘Bernard’.

Copyright © Brent C. Dickerson, all rights reserved. This article appears here by kind permission of the author.

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